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Menstruation, often known as periods, chums, or 'Aunt-flow,' is a normal occurrence that happens every month after puberty until menopause. Pre and post-menstruation, however, can be physically and mentally exhausting, despite the fact that it is closely tied to a woman's reproductive capacity. Biological and hormonal changes in the body prior to menstruation cause mood swings as well as depression and anxiety symptoms. Among other symptoms, many women feel abdominal discomfort, water retention, and skin sensitivity. Premenstrual syndrome refers to the days leading up to menstruation when women may suffer unpleasant changes in their bodies (PMS). Let’s take a look at the impact of menstruation on a woman’s mental health.

PMS, PMDD and Their Impact on Women's Mental Health
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a set of symptoms experienced by many women a week or two before their period. Over 90% of women say they experience premenstrual symptoms like bloating, headaches, and moodiness. Some women's symptoms are severe enough to cause them to miss work or school, while others are unaffected by milder symptoms. A woman's susceptibility to PMS symptoms increases as she
gets older.

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a significant health condition that is related to premenstrual syndrome (PMS). In the week or two before your period, PMDD produces significant irritation, melancholy, or worry. More than 5% of women suffer from PMDD.
Symptoms often subside two to three days after your menstruation begins. To alleviate your symptoms, you may require medication or other treatment.

Researchers are unsure exactly what causes PMDD or PMS. Hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle could be a factor. Serotonin, a brain neurotransmitter, may potentially play a role in PMDD. 

However, serotonin levels fluctuate during the whole menstrual cycle. Women who are going through these changes may or may not be more sensitive to them. Which can be one of the many factors in the play here. Dopamine levels rise in tandem with estrogen levels before ovulation. This fluctuation may also assist to explain why you may have alterations in working memory and concentration throughout your period. Following ovulation, dopamine and estrogen levels drop again, and estrogen and progesterone levels drop again just before your period begins.  For some women, the decline in estrogen after ovulation is accompanied by a dip in serotonin. 

A 2017 study says that
"Progesterone changes have also been linked to a decrease in dopamine, according to Trusted Source. Low progesterone, like low estrogen, can lead to mood swings, including depression symptoms."

Coping with PMS and Its Impact on Your Mental Health

If depression during your period is affecting your life, know that you have options for treatment. A therapist or
another healthcare expert can provide additional guidance and support in determining the best treatment for you. 

Supplements and medications 
A therapist or other healthcare practitioner can send you to a psychiatrist who can recommend and prescribe antidepressants
if you want to try them. According to research from 2011 Trusted Source, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are effective
in the treatment of PMDD. The most effective drug is determined by a number of criteria, including your medical history and the root cause of your depression. More information regarding prescription alternatives, such as combination birth control pills and other treatments, can be obtained from your healthcare provider. They can also advise you on other possible therapies, such as: 
herbal supplements, such as evening primrose oil and black cohosh, vitamin supplements, such as vitamin B6, magnesium, and calcium.

When Is It Time to Seek Help?

For some women, PMS consists of only minor symptoms such as light cramps, bloating, or increased sleepiness. However, keep in mind that this isn't true for everyone.